Barbot, an agent for the French Royal African Company, made
at leasttwo voyages to the West Coast of Africa, in 1678
Those sold by the Blacks are for the most part prisoners of war, taken either in fight, or pursuit, or in the incursions they make into their enemies territories; others stolen away by their own countrymen; and some there are, who will sell their own children, kindred, or neighbours. This has been often seen, and to compass it, they desire the person they intend to sell, to help them in carrying something to the factory by way of trade, and when there, the person so deluded, not understanding the language, is old and deliver'd up as a slave, notwithstanding all his resistance, and exclaiming against the treachery....
kings are so absolute, that upon any slight pretense of
offences committed by their subjects, they order them to
be sold for slaves, without regard to rank, or possession....
of little Blacks of both sexes are also stolen away by their
neighbours, when found abroad on the roads, or in the woods;
or else in the Cougans, or corn- fields, at the time of
the year, when their parents keep them there all day, to
scare away the devouring small birds, that come to feed
on the millet, in swarms, as has been said above.
times of dearth and famine, abundance of those people will
sell themselves, for a maintenance, and to prevent starving.
When I first arriv'd at Goerree, in December, 1681, I could
have bought a great number, at very easy rates, if I could
have found provisions to subsist them; so great was the
dearth then, in that part of Nigritia. . . .
conclude, some slaves are also brought to these Blacks,
from very remote inland countries, by way of trade, and
sold for things of very inconsiderable value; but these
slaves are generally poor and weak, by reason of the barbarous
usage they have had in traveling so far, being continually
beaten, and almost famish'd; so inhuman are the Blacks to
trade of slaves is in a more peculiar manner the business
of kings, rich men, and prime merchants, exclusive of the
inferior sort of Blacks.
slaves are severely and barbarously treated by their masters,
who subsist them poorly, and beat them inhumanly, as may
be seen by the scabs and wounds on the bodies of many of
them when sold to us. They scarce allow them the least rag
to cover their nakedness, which they also take off from
them when sold to Europeans; and they always go bare- headed.
The wives and children of slaves, are also slaves to the
master under whom they are married; and when dead, they
never bury them, but cast out the bodies into some by place,
to be devoured by birds, or beasts of prey.
barbarous usage of those unfortunate wretches, makes it
appear, that the fate of such as are bought and transported
from the coast to America, or other parts of the world,
by Europeans, is less deplorable, than that of those who
end their days in their native country; for aboard ships
all possible care is taken to preserve and subsist them
for the interest of the owners, and when sold in America,
the same motive ought to prevail with their masters to use
them well, that they may live the longer, and do them more
service. Not to mention the inestimable advantage they may
reap, of becoming Christians, and saving their souls, if
they make a true use of their condition....
of those slaves we transport from Guinea to America are
prepossessed with the opinion, that they are carried like
sheep to the slaughter, and that the Europeans are fond
of their flesh; which notion so far prevails with some,
as to make them fall into a deep melancholy and despair,
and to refuse all sustenance, tho' never so much compelled
and even beaten to oblige them to take some nourishment:
notwithstanding all which, they will starve to death; whereof
I have had several instances in my own slaves both aboard
and at Guadalupe. And tho' I must say I am naturally compassionate,
yet have I been necessitated sometimes to cause the teeth
of those wretches to be broken, because they would not open
their mouths, or be prevailed upon by any entreaties to
feed themselves; and thus have forced some sustenance into
the slaves come down to Fida from the inland country, they
are put into a booth, or prison, built for that purpose,
near the beach, all of them together; and when the Europeans
are to receive them, every part of every one of them, to
the smallest member, men and women being all stark naked.
Such as are allowed good and sound, are set on one side,
and the others by themselves; which slaves so rejected are
there called Mackrons, being above thirty five years of
age, or defective in their limbs, eyes or teeth; or grown
grey, or that have the venereal disease, or any other imperfection.
These being set aside, each of the others, which have passed
as good, is marked on the breast, with a red- hot iron,
imprinting the mark of the French, English, or Dutch companies,
that so each nation may distinguish their own.
John Barbot, "A Description of the Coasts of North
and South Guinea," in Thomas Astley and John Churchill,
eds., Collection of Voyages and Travels (London,